અંગ્રેજી ભાષામાં વાતચીત દરમિયાન થોડો મુંજવણ પ્રશ્ન હોય તો તે છે. “Knowledge of tenses” ગુજરાતી ભાષામાં આપણે વિવિધ પ્રકારનો કાળનો અભ્યાસ નથી કર્યો તેમ છતાં આપણે ગુજરાતી ભાષામાં વાતચીત કરી શકીએ છીએ પરંતુ અંગ્રેજી ભાષા આપણી માતૃભાષા નથી તેથી ક્યારેક ક્યારેક “કયું વાક્ય કયા કાળમાં બોલવું?” અને “તે કાળનું વાક્ય કેવી રીતે બોલવું?” જેવા પ્રશ્નો આપણે થાય. પરંતુ મિત્રો don’t worry જેમ જેમ અંગ્રેજી ભાષા ઉપર તમારું પ્રભુત્વ વધતું જશે તેમ તેમ tenses ના usage પર પણ તમારું પ્રભુત્વ વધતું જશે.
The more you speak English, The more command you will have over use of tenses.
- મિત્રો આ પ્રકરણ તમે ધો-10/11માં અભ્યાસ કરી ગયા છો. અહી તમને ચાર-પાંચ વાક્યોની એક-text અાપવામાં આવેલ હશે. તે text ચોક્ક્સ Tense ની હશે. તે text ને તમારે સૂચવ્યા મુજબ change કરવાની રહેશે.
- How to change the text•
Study the following guide lines to change the text.
- First of all, read the text two times.
For Example : (Change the text)
Priya finished her work. She did not help others. She did her work herself. She. thought that work is worship.
Start like : Priya has finished.
2.આપેલા text સાદા ભૂતકાળનાની છે કારણ કે તેમાં સમાવિષ્ટ ક્રિયાપદો જેવા કે finished, did not, did thought વગેરે સાદો ભૂતકાળ સૂચવે છે.
3.Read the instruction ( સુચના વાંચો)
અહીં સુચના આપી છે, “Priya has finished…”
4.Decide the tense in which the given text is to be changed આપેલી text ને ક્યાં કાળમાં રૂપાંતરીત કરવાની છે તે નક્કી કરો.
અહીં આપેલ text ને પૂર્ણ વર્તમાનકાળ માં ફેરવવા છે. કારણ કે સૂચના માં has finished આપેલ છે અને આ ક્રીયાપદનું રૂપ પૂર્ણ વર્તમાન દર્શાવેલ છે.
5.જે tense માં આપેલી text ફેરવવાની છે તે tense ના form તેમજ તે tense ના વાક્ય કેવી રીતિ બનાવી શકાય છે. તે બાબતોની નોંધ કરો.
અહીં આ text માટે have/has + PP. ના રૂપમાં વાક્યો બનાવાય.
- text ને જે tense માં ફેરવવાની છે તે tense માં ફેરવવા માટે આપેલા text માં કઈ કઈ જગ્યા એ ફેરફાર કરવા પડશે તે શબ્દો , શબ્દ સમૂહને underline કરો.
For Example : પ્રશ્નમાં આપેલ text માંથી નીચેના શબ્દનું રૂપાંતર કરવું પડશે.
did not help,
- Underline કરેલા શબ્દો/શબ્દ સમૂહને સૂચવેલા tense મુજબ ફેરફાર કરો.
For Example :
મૂળ શબ્દ/શબ્દસમૂહ. ફેરફાર કરેલા શબ્દ, શબ્દસમૂહ
did not help – has not helped (કર્તા તરીકે she છે માટે
has મુકેલ છે.)
did – has done
thought – has thought
- is( is માં કોઈ ફેરફાર નહિ થાય કારણ કે તે
કહેવતમાં આવેલ છે.) Work is worship.
8.સમય દર્શાવતા શબ્દોનો પણ text ને change કરતી વખતે ધ્યાનમાં લઈને તે શબ્દનો પણ સુચવેલા કાળ મુજબ ફેરફાર કરો.
For Example :
અહીં સમય દર્શાવતા શબ્દો આપ્યા નથી. પરંતુ જો વર્તમાનકાળનું વાક્ય હોય અને તેના today જેવા શબ્દો આપ્યા હોય અને ત્યાં વાક્યનું ભૂતકાળમાં ફેરવવાના હોય તો તેનું રૂપાંતર yesterday માં કરવું. જેમ કે,
વર્તમાન કાળ ભૂતકાળ ભવિષ્યકાળ
to day Yesterday tomorrow
– Last Monday next Monday
- સનાતન સત્ય દશૉવતા કહેવતો, વૈજ્ઞાનિક નિયમો તેમજ અન્ય સત્યો દશવિતા વાક્યોમાં ફેરફાર ન કરવો.
For Example : આ વાક્યમાં કહેવત આપી છે.Work is worship તો તેમાં કોઈ change ન થાય.
- સમગ્ર text ને change કરી ફરી એક વખત વાંચી જાઓ. Write it error free.
For Example: Answer of the question is given here.
Priya has finished her work. She has not helped others. She has done her work herself. She has thought that work is worship.
મિત્રો, આપેલી text ને ચોક્કસ કાળ મુજબ change કરતાં પહેલાં આપણે દરેક કાળ વિશે સમજીયે,
નીચે અંગ્રેજી ભાષાના વિવિધ કાળની માહિતી ઉદાહરણ સાથે આપવામાં આવી છે તેનો અભ્યાસ કરી exercises ને solve કરવાથી આ પ્રશ્નને વધારે સરળતાથી સમજી શકીશું.
- SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Tense ના list મા સૌ પ્રથમ આવતો આ કાળ વાતચીતમાં અને વ્યવહારમાં સૌથી વધુ ઉપયોગમાં લેવાય છે. કારણ કે આ Tense દ્વારા સૌથી વધુ functions express કરી શકાય છે.
Simple present tense is formed this way:
કતો + ક્રિયાપદનું મૂળ રૂ૫ (ત્રી.પુ.એ.વ.હોય તો જી/જ વાળું રૂપ)
દા. ત.,I play cricket, Sachin plays cricket.
આ વાક્ય નકાર કે પ્રશ્નાર્થ કરવા માટે સહાયક ક્રિયાપદ Do કે Does નો ઉપયોગ કરવો પડે.
દા . ત., I do not play, She does not play.
Do I play? or Does she play?
Simple present tense expresses following different functions
- Things that happen all time (હંમેશા) repeatedly (વારંવાર) or something that is true in general (બધાને લાગુ પડતી હોય).
- The earth moves round the sun. (all time)
- Doctor treats the patient. (true in general)
- Generally I get up at six. (repeatedly)
- Habits, (ટેવ) instruction (સુચના)
– Take left turn and go straight (instruction)
-I go to temple once in a week. (habit)
- Proverbs, (કહેવતો) Scientific truth (વૈજ્ઞાનિક સત્ય), Commentary (રમતની કોમેન્ટ્રી)
-A stitch in time saves nine. (proverb)
-Water boils at 100° (scientific truth)
-India wins the toss. (commentary)
- Quotations are often expressed with says (કોઈને કહેલા સુવાક્યો સામાન્ય રીતે જઠ્ઠ અજ વડે દર્શાવાય છે
-Krishna says “Do your duty”
- Letter writing માં કેટલાક phrase આ કાળ દ્વારા લખાય.
-Ihere with enclose my mark sheet.
-I look forward for your reply.
-Don’t forget to come soon.
- Promise તેમજ કેટલાક phrases આ કાળ દ્વારા લખાય.
-I promise to work hard.
-I agree with you.
-I swear I won’t do it again.
-love your hobbies.
-I like your company.
Remember : આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનામાં સામાન્ય રીતે every day, daily, always, often, every month, regularly, generally જેવા સમય દર્શક શબ્દોનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
જો વાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રુપો તરીકે am/is/are + ભૂતકૃદંતનું રૂપ મૂકવું.
The match is won by Indians.
- કેટલીક વાક્ય રચના passive form દ્વારા રજુ કરવામાં આવે છે.
-The match is played between India and Pakistan.
-The result is declared through internet.
– I am asked to meet you.
-Cows are worshipped in India.
- All religions lead us to the same goal.
- The Gurkhas come from Nepal.
- Experience teaches us many lessons.
- The doctor advises us to take exercises regularly.
- Wastage of time is not liked by us.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
1.I___not dishonest persons. (like)
2.Tanmay___ his work sincerely. (do)
- People____ their representatives by voting. (elect)
4.Ghee___ from butter. (make)
- Raj___ always in the school. (punish)
- Elections___ every five years in India. (hold)
7.___you___ your work honestly? (do)
8.Many___festivals with great joy in our country. (Celebrate)
- Apurva ___not__ classes regularly. (attend)
- ___your cow __much milk? (give)
Exercise-2 : Change the following sentences in to simple present tense.
1.Maya has finished her work.
2.They did not help us.
3 Arti had eaten last night.
4 Pooja never came here.
- He said he was unhappy yesterday
6.It was a terrible incident for him because he met with an accident.
7.The manager ordered the clerk to bring a chair for the customer.
8.She did not ask him any questions because she believed what he said.
- What did you do to meet your expenses?
10.He is reading a news paper now.
- CONTINUOUS PRESENT TENSE
વર્તમાન માં ચાલુ હોય તેવી ક્રિયા દર્શાવવા માટે આ કાળનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
Continuous present tense is formed this way
કર્તા + am/is/are + ક્રિયાપદનું ing વાળું રૂપ+ કર્મ
I am writing an essay.
જો વાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રૂપ તરીકે am/is/are + being + ભૂત કૃદંતનુ રૂપ મૂકવું.
An essay is being written by me.
Continuous present tense expresses following different functions.
- જયારે બોલતી વખતે જે તે ક્રિયા ચાલુ હોય તે દેશવવા>
-Look, the bus is coming.
-Why are you dancing?
-It is raining. I need your umbrella.
- To talk about something that may be going on at the same time.
જે બે ક્રિયા હંમેશા સાથે બનતી હોય,
-I hate being disturbed when I am writing.
-You look charming while you are smiling.
- To talk about thing that annoy you.
તમને ગુસ્સો અપાવે તેવી ક્રિયા ૨જૂ કરવા આ સમયે ટ્ઠડ્ડમ્અજ જેવા શબ્દ હોઈ શકે .
-You are always asking such stupid questions.
- To indicate near future.
નજીકના ભવિષ્યમાં થવાની કોઈ ક્રિયા.
-My father is coming tonight.
-I am not going there.
– We are getting late.
આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનામાં સમયદર્શક શબ્દો તરીકે now, look, see, listen, hear, hurry up, at this time, at present વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
- See, our president is hosting the Indian flag.
- Listen, a good song is being sung by Mohit Chauhan.
- Look, Dhoni and Irfan are batting marvelously on the cricket ground.
- The patients are being taken to the Unity hospital.
- My car is being repaired by the mechanic now.
Exercise-3 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
1.Budget___in the parliament now. (discuss)
2.Look, a rat____by a cat.(chase)
3.Some persons___ on the road now.(quarrel)
- Please wait sir. Your car___ (repair)
5.I___a sketch of Sardar Patel at present.
- Kavya and Khushi ____on the stage for their remarkable feat now. (award)
- Mr. Pancholi____ a lecture on usefulness of water in the hall.(deliver)
- Listen, you__ by someone.(call)
- Don’t start eating now. Sweets___(serve)
- Our scientists____ hard to invent the latest missiles.(tray)
Exercise-4 : Turn the following sentences into Present cont. tense.
- I was reading a novel when you came.
- The worker has worked properly at the spot of accident.
- Who broke the window glass?
- Mr. Patil will go Ahmedabad tomorrow.
5.Why did they not attend the party?
6.Will the government take action against terrorism in J&K?
7.Text book board will introduce new text book this year.
8.The result of the exam will be declared soon.
9.Many people were killed in riots.
- Paresh had cleaned the room.
- PERFECT PRESENT TENSE
જે ક્રિયા હમણાં જ કે નજીકના ભૂતકાળમાં પૂરી થઇ હોય અને વર્તમાનમાં રજૂ કરવામાં આવતી હોય તે દર્શાવવા આ કાળ વપરાય.
Perfect present tense is formed this way :
કર્તા + have / has (ત્રી.પુ.એ.વ. હોય તો) + ભૂતકૃદંત + કર્મ
I have finished my work.
જો વાક્ય passive ૨ચના દશાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રૂપ તરીકે have / has + been +ભૂત કૃદંતનું રૂપ મુકવું.
My work has been finished.
The Perfect present tense expresses following different functions.
- Action is completed in the past but it is related with present : (ક્રિયા ભૂતકાળમાં પૂરી થઈ પણ વર્તમાન સાથે સંબંધિત છે.)
I have seen this movie.
(આ ચિત્ર મેં જોયેલું છે. means picture જોવાની action પૂરી થઈ ગયેલ છે.
- Action is finished but has strong impact on present : (ક્રિયા પૂરી થઈ ગઈ છે પરંતુ વર્તમાન પર તેની અસર છે.)
I have informed him about your choice.
(તમારી choice આ બાબતે મેં એમને informed કર્યા છે.It means તે જાણે છે.)
Ishita has cooked evening meal. (means she is free now)
We have not seen this movie. (means we want to see it)
કોઈ બાબતની જાણકારી મેળવવા માટે.
-Have you informed him?
-Have you sent his message?
-Have you read Kalapi’ ?
- To give new information or to announce a recent happening (હાલમાં બનેલા બનાવ રજૂ કરવા)
-Have you got cold? Your voice sounds funny.
-The U.S.A. Troops have captured the city.
- જે ક્રિયા હમણાં નથી બની પરંતુ it is still a part of our experience
-I have never had cold.
-We have visited Agra twice.
- કેટલાક expressions સાથે આ કાળ વપરાય છે
-This is the first time, I have seen the snake.
– It’s third time you have been late.
- Yet સાથે,
-Parth has not come yet.
-Haven’t they returned yet?
Remember : આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચના માં સમાયદર્શક શબ્દો તરીકે just, already, recently, ever, never, yet, since, for વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
- We have already attended the lectures on Yoga.
- Mr.Patel has taught English in this school for forty years.
- We have got freedom since 1947.
- Hiren is tired now. He has worked for two hours.
- Have you ever tasted Chow-mein?
Exercise-5 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
1 India___ recently ___ 104 satellites (launch)
2.____ you ever____ to Goa? (be)
- I ___Just ___my lunch. (have)
- The Patanjali products ___in the market by Baba Ramdev. (introduce)
5.Montu___India for two months. (leave)
6.Mr. Modi___ our prime minister for three years.(be)
- Nobody____ever___by me.(cheat)
8.Riddhi____already____ “the best student award’.(give)
9._____Dhruvi ____her work so far? (do)
- Start eating now. Eveything_____ (serve)
Exercise-6 : Change the sentences into Perfect Present Tense.
- Shivani is cooking “Bhakharwadi’.
- I saw Singham’ two times.
- Shruti did not ask anybody to help her.
- Parul did not return my book.
5.Mr. R.B. Bhatt is not in the staff room. He must have gone out.
- Sigma had not submitted her task yet.
- Why are you creating chaos?
- She does not share any secrets with us.
9.I saw him reading a novel.
- What did Army do to join the police force?
- PERFECT CONTINUOUS PRESENT TENSE
જે ક્રિયા ભૂતકાળમાં શરૂ થઈ હોય અને અત્યારે પણ ચાલુ હોય તે દર્શાવવા આ કાળ વપરાય.
Perfect continuous present tense is formed this way :
કર્તા+ have / has + been + ing વાળુ ક્રિયાપદ+ કર્મ
I have been playing cricket since morning.
Perfect continuous present tense expresses following different functions.
- (કિયા ભૂતકાળમાં શરૂ થઈ અને અત્યારે પણ ચાલું હોય.)
-Sachin has been playing for India.
-I have been serving in The B.K.School of Management since 1991.
-Our teacher has been teaching in the class for last an hour.
- જે ક્રિયા અત્યારે ચાલુ હોય અને નજીકના ભવિષ્યમાં ચાલુ રહે તેવી સંભાવના હોય.
-We have been enjoying freedom.
-India has been developing in different areas for last decade.
Remember :આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનામાં સમય શબ્દો તરીકે since, for નો ઉપયોગ થાય છે આ કાળ passive રચના બનતી નથી.
- It has been raining heavily since midnight.
- Dhairya has been playing computer game since 8.00 a.m.
- Since when have you been staying here?
- We have been living in this house since 1940.
- Students have been reading books in the library for four hours.
Exercise-7 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets
- We _____English since 8:00 am (learn)
2.It____ since the morning. (rain)
3.Madhuri____ since she came on the stage. (dance)
4.Riddhi and Dhruvi _____for an hour. (talk)
- The commissioner____ his level best since he resumed his duties. (do)
- Ravindra and Cheteshwar____ For two days. (bat)
- Mr. Advani____ to be the prime minister for many years.
- Mary Kom___ hard to win the gold medal in Olympics.(practice)
9.Our brave soldiers____ Pakistani terrorists bravely for so many years. (face)
- Nayan____ his lunch for past thirty minutes. (have)
Exercise-8 : Turn the following sentences into present perfect Continuous tense.
- I am playing for India.
- Dhoni has hit many sixes in IPL.
- Are you running any company for the upliftment of poor people?
- Why are the soldiers walk in marching on the border?
- Sanjana is helping Krishna in his work.
- I teach English in high school.
- What is Maya doing there in my absence?
- Radha and Aradhana meet every afternoon to inquire about latest development.
9.The captain is instructing the team member for their batting style.
- How is she appealing us?
- SIMPLE PAST TENSE
જે પ્રક્રિયા પૂરી થઈ ગઈ હોય તે દર્શાવવા આ કાળ વપરાય છે.
Simple past Tense is formed this way.
કર્તા + ક્રિયાપદ નું ભૂતકાળનું રૂપ +કર્મ
I played piano last night.
આ કાળનું પ્રશ્નાર્થ કે નકાર કરવા માટે સહાયક ક્રિયાપદ did નો ઉપયોગ થાય.
Did સાથે હંમેશા ક્રિયાપદનું મૂળરૂપ મુકાય.
I did not play piano last night.
Did I play piano last night?
Simple past tense expresses following different functions.
- To indicate the actions which are finished in the past (ભૂતકાળમાં થઇ ગયેલી ક્રિયા દર્શાવવા)
-I woke up at midnight yesterday.
-His mother died in 1998.
- Past fact (ભૂતકાળની હકીકત)
-India got freedom in 1947.
-First World War broke out in 1914.
- A series of past actions (ભૂતકાળની સંકળાયેલી ક્રિયાઓ)
-The thief came out from the room, jumped on the balcony, climbed the stairs and disappeared in the dark.
- The main function is to narrate stories or incídents ( મુખ્ય કાર્ય વાર્તા કે બનાવ રજૂ કરવા માટે)
-Once upon a time, a king lived on that mountain. He had many servants….
-I saw an accident Many people were injured. They were admitted to the hospital.
- Used to infinitive indicates something happened regularly in the past. (used to +મૂળ રૂપ ભૂતકાળની વારંવાર થતી ક્રિયા દર્શાવે છે.)
-Gandhiji used to wear Khadi in Africa.
-I used to get up early at school in my childhood.
Remember: જો વાક્યpassive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રુપ તરીકે was / were + ભૂતકૃદંતનું રૂપ મૂકવું.
The result was declared yesterday.
He was congratulated by the Principal.
The match won by India.
કેટલીક વાક્ય રચના passive form દ્વારા વધુ યોગ્ય રીતે રજૂ કરી શકાય છે.
The injured were hospitalized.
The winners were congratulated.
Pakistan was defeated in Kargil war.
Remember : આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનામાં સમયદર્શક શબ્દો તરીકે
yesterday, last year, last month, in 1980, once, in the past, in ancient time વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
- Shiv finished his homework before one hour.
- I reached the theatre and the show began.
- I saw an elephant in the zoo last Sunday.
- We had no classes yesterday.
- India became free in 1947.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the
- Our freedom fighters_____ their job at their best in the past. (do)
- India _____108 satellites last week.(launch)
- The thief _____after a long chase. (arrest)
- Chocolates____ in the class by Kavya yesterday. (distribute)
5.____Madhuri ___Anil last night? (meet)
- Jhanavi____ first in the class last year. ( stand)
- Indian team_____not____a single match last month. (play)
8.________ Prizes by the chief guest. (give)
- Kohli______ well in the last match. (bat)
- _______you Manali the previous year. (visit)
Turn the following sentences into simple past tense.
- I do not do this any time to cure it.
- Mega is cleaning the road to maintain cleanliness.
- Rutu comes here at 10 on Sunday morning.
4 Arzy had been sent to Jail for punishment of a crime.
- Krishna is studying in Gurukul High School.
- Trisha does not create any fake account of facebook.
- Why was she crying there?
8.Mobile and internet make the people crazy.
- I see your mistakes yet I don’t say you anything.
- Kavita always helps me in critical circumstances.
- CONTINUOUS PAST TENSE
જે ક્રિયા ભૂતકાળ માં ચોક્કસ સમયે ચાલુ હતી તે દર્શાવવા આ કાળનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
Continuous past tense is formed this way :
કર્તા + was / were + ing વાળું ક્રિયાપદ + કર્મ
I was reading an English book.
I તેમજ ત્રી.પુ.એ.વ. સાથે was આવે બાકીના કર્તા સાથે were આવે,
જો વાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના મૂળ તરીકે was / were + being + ભૂતકૃદંતનું રૂપ મૂકવું.
An English book was being read by me.
Continuous past tense expresses following different functions.
- It indicates the action which was going on at particular time in the past. (ભૂતકાળના ચોક્કસ સમયે જે ક્રિયા ચાલુ હોય તે દર્શાવવા માટે)
-When you came, I was reading.
-While she was cooking, I called her.
-Yesterday at 10, I was driving a car.
- The expressions like: I was wondering, I was thinking and I was hoping are used to make request or suggestion more politely. (નમ્રતાથી કોઈ વિચાર રજુ કરવા)
-I was thinking if I could use your motorcar.
-I was wondering if you allow me to accompany you.
- ભૂતકાળની કોઈ આબેહુબ ઘટના ને રજુ કરવા.
It was very hot…..People were running here and there. Children were shouting and animals were leaving their yard.
Remember : આ પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનામાં રીતે મળ સમયદર્શક શબ્દો તરીકે when , while, then,at that time વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
While સાથે સામાન્ય રીતે was / were + ing વાળું રૂપ આવે છે. જો વાક્ય When વાળું હોય તો when સાથે સાદો ભૂતકાળ જ્યારે તેની સાથે બાકીના વાક્યમાં was/were+ing વાળું રૂપ આવે.
દા. ત., While the man was coming, I called him.
When I called the man, he was dancing.
1.When the teacher came, the students were talking.
- Mr.Sharma met with an accident while he was driving his scooter fast.
- When Nikhil was playing volleyball, he fell on the ground.
- The scorpion was seen while Nehru was moving in the garden.
5.When my friend came at 5.00 pm, we were getting ready to go in the marriage procession.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
1.Rahane entered while Kohli ___the playing eleven. (address)
2.When Shyam came, news ______on zee news. (telecast)
- ‘The Kapil Sharma show’ ____by us at 9:30 PM. yesterday.
4.Some rowdies attacked Arunima while she____ by a train.
- There was a blast while we_____in the garden.(walk)
- When the principal came, sweets _____in the class.
7.Nathuram Godse fired while Gandhiji____ in the morning.
8.Melodious bhajans____ on Vividh Bharti Radio in the previous morning. (broadcast)
9.I____with Madhuri when Mr. Nene entered. (talk)
- It ____heavily when we reached Manali. (rain)
Turn the following sentences into the Continuous past tense.
- We played cricket yesterday.
2.When they came, we had written your home work.
3.Aradhya had organized a tour for Kashmir
4.Did Ami sing for Viral on her birthday?
- Why did he go to U.S.A. in critical situation?
6.They have returned from South Col.
7.We are joining the police force to serve the nation.
8.Was they treated well there?
9.Hetal and Sweety did not watch any English Movies.
- Rajni Sir taught Indirect narration there.
- PERFECT PAST TENSE
ભૂતકાળમાં કોઈ એક ક્રિયા બનતા પહેલા જે ક્રિયા પૂરી થઈ ગઈ હોય તે દર્શાવવા માટે આ કાળ વપરાય છે.
Perfect past tense is formed this way :
કતૉ+ had + ભૂતકૃદંત + કર્મ
I had finished my work before 10 last night.
જોવાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રૂપ તરીકે had + been + ભૂતકૃદંતનૂ રૂપ મૂકવું.
My work had been finished by him before 10 last night.
Perfect past tense expresses following different functions.
- When we talk about two events in the past, we use the past perfect tense to describe event in the distant past. (ભૂતકાળમાં બનેલી ક્રિયાઓમાં પ્રથમ ક્રિયા આ કાળ દ્વારા દર્શાવાય.)
The teacher had left the class before I went.
By the time I reached the station, the train had arrived.
You cannot use the past perfect on its own It has to be used with the simplt past.
(પૂર્ણ ભૂતકાળનો એકલો ઉપયોગ ન થઇ શકે. ભૂતકાળની સૂચક કોઈ અન્ય શબ્દ તેની સાથે જોડાયેલ હોવો જોઈએ.
We should not say:
I had given you a note, where is it?
We should say:
I had given you a note before you demanded, where is it? or
I had given a note when we met last, where is it?
- It also expresses unfulfilled wishes, hopes, etc. ( પુરી ન થયેલી ઈચ્છાઓ રજૂ કરવા)
-I wish I had wings of the birds.
- It is vastly used in reported speech.
(Indirect speech માં આ કાળનો વધુ ઉપયોગ થાય છે.)
-My father said that I had been sent here to solve your problem.
-I asked if he had finished the task.
-Krishna knew that he had cheated his loving mother.
- It indicates unfulfilled conditions.
-If Baby had worked hard, he might have got first class.
-Had you been here, you would have asked for leave.
સમય દર્શાવતા શબ્દો તરીકે before, after, when વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે. કેટલીક વાર if વાળી unfulfilled condition સાથે આ રચનાનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે. Indirect speech ના વાક્યો જેવા કે, I knew that, I believed that, He said that, he asked it સાથે પણ આ કાળનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
- Krishna said that her Gujarati assignment had been completed by her
- The guests had arrived before we reached home.
- The doorkeeper asked me whether I had bought a ticket.
- Jayesh got succeeded because he had worked hard.
- Kamlesh had swept the room before the guests arrived.
Exercise-13 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets :
1.We____independent before 1950.(became)
2.There ___’a huge banyan tree many years ago.(be)
- The question papersb____before the squad member came. (distribute)
- Dhwani______ her meal before the guest arrived.(take)
- Kavya left the stage after the prayer____ (perform)
- Robbers_____ before they could commit the crime. (catch)
- Lajja_____hard before winning the competition.(work)
8.Khushi came after the speech_____ over.(be)
9.Prizes____away before the chief guest entered.(give)
- Second innings______ by Kohli before the lunch.(declare)
Exercise-14 :Turn the following sentences into the Perfect past tense.
- Akruti was sent to jail for a crime.
- Arti was singing a song for the prayer.
- Kishor Kumar was performing on the stage in U.S.A.
- Did she get your order in written form?
- The match was won by the Mumbai Indians yesterday
- Sachin hit six on the last ball last night.
- We will go to Agra next week to see the famous Tajmahal.
- Krishna saw ‘Dabang’ two times.
- Sanjana advised Krishna to read more to make his career.
- Last night I saw Kavita watching ‘Behad’.
- SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE AND SIMPLE MODAL
જે ક્રિયા ભવિષ્યમાં થવાની છે તે દર્શાવવા આ કાળ વપરાય. વિવિધ Model દર્શાવવા (ability possibility વગેરે) Simple Model auxiliary નો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
Remember : Simple future tense is formed this way :
કર્તા + shall / will + ક્રિયાપદ નું to વિનાનું રૂપ+ કર્મ
I shall meet you tomorrow.
સામાન્ય રીતે I અને we સાથે shall આવે જ્યારે બાકીના કર્તા સાથે will સહાયક આવે.
જો વાક્ય passive રચના દશાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદ ના રૂપ તરીકે shall / will + be + ભૂતકૃદંતનું રૂપ મુકવું.
She will be selected by the Manager for this job.
Simple future tense expresses following different functions.
- It indicates the events which are likely to happen in future.
(ભવિષ્યમાં બનવાની ઘટના રજૂ કરવા)
-I shall go by bus.
-Your result will be declared soon.
-The doctor will examine him tomorrow.
- Conditional clause માં આ કાળનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે..
-If you come, I will help you.
-If it rains, the meeting will be cancelled.
- To make predictions (ધારણા કરવા)
-Oil prices will go up.
-It’l rain soon.(There are clouds in the sky)
- To talk about future plan (ભવિષ્યના plan રજુ કરવા)
-We will reach the station at nine and will meet you there.
shall અને will બંનેને short મા I’ll લખાય. Will not ને won’t તરીકે લખાય.
‘ To be going to દ્વારા પણ સાદો ભવિષ્યકાળ રજૂ કરી શકાય shall કે will ને To be going to’ મુકાય.
I am going to meet him.
We are going to attend this meeting.
- going to દ્વારા તેમજ to be + ing દ્ધારા પણ સાદો ભવિષ્યકાળ રજૂ કરી શકાય.
-We are going to hide the facts.
-We are hiding the facts.
– will hide the facts.
- Ability દર્શાવવા can’ નો ઉપયોગ થાય.
-I can do this work
- Possibility, Probability, Permission માટે ‘may નો ઉપયોગ થાય.
-It may rain today.
-May I come in sir?
- ‘ Choice’ પુછવા માટે ‘world’ નો ઉપયોગ થાય. વિનંતી માટે પણ would વપરાય.
-Would you take tea or coffee?
-Would you help me?
- નૈતિક ફરજ માટે સલાહ સૂચન માટે should વપરાય.
-You should help your brother.
- ફરજિયતપણું દર્શાવવા must વપરાય.
-We must cross road at zebra crossing.
Remember : આ પ્રકારના વાક્યોમાં સમયદર્શક તરીકે tomorrow, next week, next year, in 2020 વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
- Next Friday our teacher will teach English.
- We wii have a test next week.
- The girls will go to the library in the next period.
4.Who will tell a story tomorrow?
5.In future computer technology wii be used in school education.
6 Amee can drive a car.
- It may rain today.
Exercise-15 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
1.Manan____a luxurious bungalow in future.( have)
- There ____an exciting final match tomorrow.(be)
- Kavya____ the first prize in tomorrow’s competition. (get)
- You____your photographs next week. (give)
- India____sophisticated satellite next month. (launch)
- “Dhamal-3’____in coming vacation. (release)
- The brilliant students___ during the next month. (honor)
- I____the Mercedeze car in 2018. (have)
- Khushi_____a nice gift for jhanvi. (buy)
- Mr. Raval_____ verb forms in the class tomorrow. (teach)
Exercise-16 Turn the following sentences into simple future tense.
- He went Agra last year.
- Akruti asked for piza last night.
- I walked two km. yesterday.
- Krishna called his friends on his birthday.
- Our result was declared yesterday.
6.They had finished the task in time .
- Why did Dhony not play in the last match.
- Indian government has declared new pay commission recently.
- When have we followed new education policy?
- Samsung has launched new model which is like i-phone.
Exercise-17 : Simple Modal Auxiliaries.
- We______our neighbours. (should+love)
2.Duty _______honestly everywhere.(should+do)
3.Ajay ____not _____heavy food due to stomach problem. (cant +take)
4.There are dark clouds in the sky. It______ tonight.
5.I___to introduce my new friend, Mr. Modi to you. (would+like)
6.Tanvi’s performance is good. The prize___to her.(may +give)
7.This heavy bag_____not_______ by anybody.(can+carry)
8.______any one_____a horse drink water?(can+ make)
- Dhananjay_____ in the final team by the selectors.
10.Aayushi___the first rank because of her hard work.
- PERFECT FUTURE TENSE
ભવિષ્યમાં ચોક્કસ સમયે કોઈ ક્રિયા પુરી થઈ ગઈ હશે તેવું દર્શાવવા માટે આ કાળનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
Perfect future tense is formed this way:
કર્તા + shall / will + have + ભૂતકૃદંત+કર્મ
I shall have finished my work by 10.
જો વાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદના રૂપ તરીકે shall/ will + have + been+ભૂતકૃદંતનુ રૂપ મૂકવુ.
You will have been given your result by June.
Perfect future tense expresses following different functions.
- It indicates the action which is expressed to be completed by certain time in future.
(ભવિષ્યમાં ચોક્કસ સમયે ક્રિયા પૂર્ણ થઈ ગઈ હશે તેવું દર્શાવવા માટે)
-I will have reached Ambaji by 11.
-(હું અગિયાર વાગ્યા સુધીમાં અંબાજી પહોંચી ગયો હોઈશ.).
-Your result will have been declared by end of May.
-(મે ના અંત સુધીમાં તમારા પરિણામ ધોષિત થઈ ગયું હશે.)
-You will have met him before 10 this morning.
-(આજે સવારે 10 વાગ્યા સુધીમાં તમને મળી લીધું હશે.)
Remember :આ પ્રકારના વાક્યોમાં સમય દર્શક તરીકે by next week, by tomorrow, by Diwali વગેરે શબ્દસમૂહનો ઉપયોગ થાય.
- By the next year, Mr.Sharma will have finished 12 years in this college.
2 By the 2014, NIsha will have completed her Ph.D.
- Dr.Manmohan singh will have implemented many new scheme for economical upliftmen of India.
- Sunita will have became a doctor in 2015.
- The annual program of the school will have been held in next December.
Exercise-18 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
- By the next year, I______10 years in this school. (finish)
- By the next month, we ____all the tenses in English.
- Before the next year, you_____master over English. (get)
4.I____my work by the time you come back from the market. (finish)
5.You____ home safely before it gets dark.(reach)
- By the time you reach there, the meeting____ over.(be)
7.Within a year, you_____ how to write correct English.(learn)
8.Saurabh______ to the U.S. within a week.(fly)
- Within a month, Mayur______ his sweetheart.(marry)
- I____ this house when he comes back build.
Exercise-19 : Turn the following sentences into perfect future tense.
- I will complete my work in time.
- India will become the developed nation by 2020.
- We introduced a new book grammar learning.
- Krishana saw ‘Humsafar’.
- I will buy a new i-phone next week.
6.Our pm declared a new education policy last year.
- Your result will be declared tomorrow evening.
- The game was not finished.
- Poojan met Rajan last night
- I will join college next week.
- PERFECT MODAL AUXILIARY
ભૂતકાળમાં બનેલી કોઈ ઘટના અંગે પ્રતિક્રિયા આપવા માટે કોઈ બની ગયેલી ઘટના અંગે સલાહ કે સુચન આપવા માટે કે ધારણા માટે આ તેના પ્રકારની વાક્ય રચનાનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે.
Remember: A Perfect modal auxiliary is formed this way:
કર્તા + modal + have + ભૂતકૃદંત + કર્મ
would have helped him.
(હું એને મદદ કરી શક્યો હોત)
- જો વાક્ય passive રચના દર્શાવતું હોય તો ક્રિયાપદ ના રૂપ તરીકે modal + have + been + ભૂતકૃદંત નું રૂપ મૂકવું.
-He would have been helped by me.
- જો ક્રિયા ભૂતકાળની બનેલી હોય તો will / shall નુ would, May નુ might, તેમજ can નુ could કરવું.
Perfect modal auxiliaries expresses following different functions.
- ભૂતકાળમાં બનેલા બનાવ અંગે પ્રતિક્રિયા આપવા.
-If I had told him, he would have helped you.
-(જે મેં તેને કહ્યું હોત તો, તેણે તને મદદ કરી હોત)
-If the doctor had come, the patient would have been saved.
-(જો ડોક્ટર આવ્યા હોત તો, દર્દીને બચાવી લેવામાં આવ્યો હોત)
- Possibility ( શક્યતા રજૂ કરવા)
-Had you worked more, you might have passed.
-(જો વધુ મહેનત કરી હોત તો કદાચ તું પાસ થઇ ગયો હોત)
-I think he may have seen you.
-(મને લાગે છે એને તને જોયો હશે).
- બની ગયેલી ઘટના સંદર્ભે સલાહ કે સુચન કરવા.
-You should have used bike.
-(તું બાઈકનો ઉપયોગ કરી શક્યો હોત એટલે કે બાઈકનો ઉપયોગ ન કર્યો.)
-You should have informed me earlier.
-(તુ મને પહેલાથી માહિતગાર કરી શક્યો હોત).
- Probable assumptions (ધારણા કરવા)
The road is wet.
Assumption : It must have rained.
Your friend is laughing.
Assumption :You must have said something funny.
સામાન્ય રીતે If….had વળી વાક્યરચનામા If વાળું વાક્ય પૂર્ણ ભૂતકાળમાં હોય છે અને બાકીનું વાક્ય perfect model auxiliary વાળું હોય છે.
1.If he had not applied the brakes soon, he would have met with an accident.
2.I suppose you must have left your umbrella there.
3.It’s your fault. You should have counted all the notes before leaving the counter.
4.You could have given him the cheque if there was no cash with you.
5.I think Pankaj must have failed in the examination as he looks sad.
Exercise- -20 : Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of verbs given in the brackets.
- The Narmada Project_____ by 2020. (complete)
- We______ Haridwar by tomorrow. (reach)
3.I____my work by evening .(Finish)
4.The Kapil Sharma show’______’ by 9:30 p.m. tonight.
5.Abhishek_______ his new film by coming month.(release)
- Had Kavya walked fast, she_____ the bus.(could + catch)
- If Raj had taken care, the accident_____.(Could + avoid)
- All the rooms are empty. The students out_____.(may + go)
9.The results________by next June.(declare)
- Khushi______a successful doctor by 2022.(become)
- If Manan had been there, he_______ you.(might + scold)
- Anubhav_____ by the time you reach there.(honour)
- Had shyam been present, he____you.(would + support)
- Priya_______all the letters by evening.(type)
- ‘Gear’_____in India by pranav mistry by next year..(introduce)
- We _____our work by next week.(do)
- If Nirnay had been careful, the mirror___ not.(might+break)
- Had chinmay seen you, he_____ you.(would+call)
- India ____.The match by Sunday.(win)
- New Medical college____ in Mehsana by 2018.(setup)
Exercise-21 : Do as directed.
- The robots obey their master. They never question his order. The master gives rewards to his robots. He never disappoints them.
Start like : The Robots obeyed…
- The boy has finished his work. He is ready to go out. He does not wish to leave anything there so he has brought everything with him before other comes.
Start: The boy had…
- He says that he is busy. He believes that everybody lives his life as per belief. He does not think that other people also affect them.
- Riya had completed her work befor you came. She had already submitted her assignments in time.She did not wish to be said lazy.
Start : Riya has..
- Mrs. Patel goes to the market everyday. she buys some grocery things and vegetables. she does not waste much time in market. She visits the temple on the way back home.
Start : Mrs. Patel went…
- I like my school because there are children from different families. Children come to school and go home together. All the children learn the same thing. They play together and help one another. The teachers are real people who solve our problems.
Start: I liked…
- Manisha was a member of a middle class family. She studied in Std.10″. She worked as a computer operater. She got up early morning. She helped her family.
Start: Manisha is…
- Tomorrow my friend and I will go to my uncle’s house. He will welcome us. My aunt will prepare tea and samosa. We will enjoy the breakfast and tea. We will go round my uncle’s farm. We will eat mangoes also. We will talk about the crops with my uncle.
Start : Yesterday….
- There is a hunter. He goes to the forest. He spreads his net and catches some birds in it. The bird do not know what to do. They think something and soon they all fly away together.
Start: There was….
- My parents help me with my studies everyday. They sit by me and guide me to complete my home work and also watch T.V. programmes for a short time everyday.
Start: My parents helped..
- Shyam worked hard. Laxman helped him. They were studious persons. They succeeded very much.
Start like this: Shyam works hard___
- The teacher is teaching now. Are all the students interested? Perhaps, they are not. The teacher does not teach them well.
Start like this: Amit was___
- we went to Baroda yesterday. There was a fun fair on the Municipal ground. We had various tasty dishes there. We enjoyed too much.
Start like this: we will go___
- Sanjana obeys her parents. She does her work honestly. She does not ignore them. Isn’t she an obedient girl?
Start like this: Sanjana obeyed______
- Prem Chopra is a cruel villain. He asks for money and grain from the people of Rampur. He has escaped once from jail. He has killed jay too.
Start like this: Prem Chopra was a____
- You can see, there are flowers and flowers. Green meadows and white clouds create a panoramic view. What place is this? Can you guess?
Start like this: You could____
- A National park has a defined boundary, through which no person could get into without permission. The visitors could observe the park by a vehicle which routed through defined trails. Right of people did not belong to people.
Start like this: A national park has a defined____
- They know what his name is. It is Mitra, a friend. It cannot walk. We feed him so that it may survive.
Start like this: They knew what_____
- “I don’t know, papa. It has just arrived.” Riya was puzzled. “it came from the sky,” she showed the route of the ball with her frightened eyes.
Start like this: I didn’t know_____’
- From Salim Ali’s book ‘Indian Birds’ Priya found out that it was a duck. Its beak was broad like a shovel. It had bright blue feathers. At the moment it looked exhausted.
Start like this: From Salim Ali’s book ‘Indian birds Priya will find___
- India will have rich and prosperous society. We will be great and powerful in the world. We shall have a long democratic history. We shall be the best.
Start like this: India has rich______
22.We opened the door and stepped of the foot board. We were deeply disappointed. We felt we had to do something, and So I ran up to the station master and asked, “Did you see the girl who sold baskets?
Start like this: We open the door____
- Yoga offers a time-trusted technique for whole development. It is one of the most powerful science. It is considered to be the most ancient science. It has the capacity to bring about fundamental transformation in the individual.
Start like this: Yoga will offer a______
- Sanjana requests you to look at the picture. What do you notice? Isn’t it funny? There is a monkey who has a newspaper in his hand and is reading it.
Start like this: Sanjana requested_____
- Priya studied in her mother tongue and later joined Oxford University. She was like any other child but her IQ powered her to the 1st rank in every year. She spent 5 years at Cambridge College She was good in every activity.
Start like this: Priya had studied____
- While I was distributing papers, Manthan entered. All the students looked at him but nobody respon
So, Manthan was surprised.
Start like this: While I am distributing
- While I was distributing papers, Manthan entered. All the students looked at him but nobody nobody responded.So, Manthan was surprised
Start like this: While I am distributing_____
- Having done my work, I went out. I saw that there was a huge crowd. Surrounding two men.There was a quarrel between them. All enjoyed the scene but nobody interrupted.
Start like this: Having done my work, I shall go out____
- I Really feel relieved and happy with just a thought that I will pursue a profession which has incorporated my hobbies and my values. I will never be bored but will enjoy working. Haven’t you done a great job. Mr.Raval?
Start like this: I really felt relieved_____
- Jay did everything sincerely. Did he do his duty seriously? Yes, he did because he wanted to regain his fame which he had lost in the past. It seemed surprising to everyone.
Start like this: Jay does everything_____
- The Annual Day will be celebrated on 15th May. Mr. Rohit will be present there. We shall present various dances. Our cultural committee will hold the programme. Roshny will handle the whole program.
Start like this: The annual day is celebrated_____
- There are dark clouds in the sky. It may rain tonight. It will be troublesome for people. There canvbe a shortage of many things so people are requested to be alert.
Start like this: There were dark clouds____
- How much land does a man need? Have you ever thought? Man is not satisfied with what he has. He struggles a lot and gets something. He has to try hard to survive.
Start like this: How much land did_____
33.”We haven’t got a deal,” Walt admitted. The distributor copyrighted Oswald and he is taking over the series himself “Strangely, Walt did not seen downhearted”.
Start like this: We hadn’t got a____
34.“ What do you do with all your money?” A friend once asked him. Pointing at the studio,Walt said, “I fertilize that field with it. I ploughed money back into the company almost as fast as came in”.
Start like this: What did you do with____
- Sergeant continued, “It would bring a disaster. It had caused enough trouble already.” He threw the paw upon the fire. But Mr.White was curious and wanted to tést the powers of the monkey’s paw.
Start like this: Sergeant will continue_____
- Morris said: “An old fakir put a spell on it. He was a very holy man and he wanted to show that fate ruled people’s lives, and that to interfere with fate, only caused deep sadness”.
Start like this: Morris will say____
- Suddenly there were sounds of cracks and thunder. The house started collapsing. The roof, walls and staircase started falling down. They rushed towards the ground and then ran towards main gate of the villa.
Start like this: Suddenly there are____
- Riya was reading a novel. Vaidehi entered. She asked
her,”Why did you not attend school?” Riya replied her that she did not remain absent but Vaidehi often left English lecture.
Start like this: Riya is reading a novel_____
- Once there lived a very wise man. Who was famous for his wisdom? He would play practical jokes and helped people. People did not disobey him and he also respected other people.
Start like this: There lives a very_____
40.India won the gold medal in shooting. There was a great celebration. There were many people at the airport to welcome the champion. They cheered loudly. They also clapped for the winner.
Start like this: India had won_____
41.All around you can see, there are flowers and flowers. Green meadows and White clouds create a panoramic view. What place is this? Can you guess?
Start like this : All around you could____ [March 2018]
- Sanjana requests you to look at the picture. What do you notice? Isn’t it funny? There is a monkey who has a newspaper in his hand and is reading it.
Start like this: Sanjana requested_____. [July 2018]
43.Shilpa teaches Maths in in the secondary section of Shanti Niketan school. She inspires the students to get good marks in Maths. The staff appreciate her teaching method.
Start like this : Maths is taught by…….. [March 2019]
- Sumitra opens a opens a savings account in Canara Bank. She deposits Rs. 10.000 every month. She never withdraws money from her savings account.
Start like this : Sumitra opened a savings…. [March 2019]
ANSWERS – EXERCISE
- do, like
- is made
- is punished
- Do, do
- are celebrated
- does, attend
- Does, give
- Maya finishes her work.
2.They do not help us.
- Arti eats to night.
- Pooja never comes here.
- He says he is unhappy today.
- It is a terrible incident for him because he meets with an accident.
7.The manager orders the clerk to bring a chair for the customer.
- She does not ask him any questions because she believes what he says.
- What do you do to meet your expenses?
- He reads a news paper every day.
- is being discussed
- is being chased
- are quarreling
- is being repaired
- am drawing
- are being awarded
- is delivering
- will have finished
- will have discussed
3.will have got
4.will have finished
- will have reached
6.will have been
- will have learnt
- will have flown
- will have married
- will have built
1.I will have completed my work in time.
- India will have become the developed nation by 2020.
3.We will have introduced a new book grammar learning.
- Krishana will have seen ‘Humsafar’.
- I will have bought a new i-phone by next week.
- Our pm will have declared a new education policy by next year.
7.Your result will have been declared by tomorrow evening.
- The game will not have been finished.
- Poojan will have met Rajan by next night.
- I will have joined college by next week.
- will have been completed
- shall have reached
3.shall have finished
4.will have been telecast
- will have released
6.could have caught
- could have been avoided
- may have gone
- will have been declared
- will have become
- might have scolded
- will have been honoured
- would have supported
- will have typed
- will have been introduced
- shall have done
- might have been broken
18.would have called
- would have won
20.will have been set up
ANSWERS MIXED EXERCISE
1.The Robots obeyed their master They never questioned his order. The master gave rewards to his robots. He never disappointed them.
2.The boy had finished his work. He was ready to go out. He did not wish to leave anything there so he had brought everything with him before other came.
3.He said that he was busy. He believed that everybody lived his life as per his belief. He did not think that other people also affected them.
- Riya has completed her work before you come. She has already submitted her assignments in time. She does not wish to be said lazy.
- Mrs. Patel went to the market yesterday.she bought some grocery things and vegetables.she did not waste much time in market. She visited the temple on the way back home.
- I liked my school because there were children from different families. Children came to school and went home together. All the children learned the thing. They played together and helped one another. The teachers were real people who
solved our problems.
7.Manisha is a member of a middle class family. She studies in Std. 10. She works as a computer operator. She gets up early morning. She helps her family.
8.Yesterday my friend and I went to my uncle’s house. He welcomed us. My aunt prepared tea and samosa. We enjoyed the breakfast and tea. We went round my uncle’s farm. We ate
mangoes also. We talked about the crops with my uncle.
9.There was a hunter. He went to the forest. He spread his net and caught some birds in it. The bird did not know what to do.
They thought something and soon they all flew away
- My parents helped me with my studies yesterday. They sat by me and guided me to complete my home work and also watched T.V. programmes for a short time yesterday.
11.Shyam works hard. Laxman helps him. They are studious persons. They succeed very much.
12.Amit was teaching then. Were all the students interested? Perhaps. They were not. The teacher did not teach them well.
- We will go to Baroda tomorrow. There will be fun fair on the Municipal ground. We will have various tasty dishes there. We will enjoy too much.
14.Sanjana obeyed her parents. She did her work honestly. She did not ignore them. Wasn’t she| an obedient girl?
- Prem Chopra was a cruel villain. He asked for money and grain from the people of Rampur. He had escaped once from jail. He had killed jay too.
16.You could see, there were flowers and flowers. Green meadows and white clouds created a panoramic view. What place was this? Could you guess?
17.A national park has a defined boundary, through which no person can get into without permission. The visitors can observe the park by a vehicle which routes through defined trails. Right of people does not belong to people.
18.they knew what his name was; it was Mitra, a friend. It could not walk. We fed him so that i
19.I didn’t know, papa. It had just arrived.” Riya had been puzzled. “it had come from the sky.” She had showed the route of the ball with her frightened eyes.
20.From Salim Ali’s book ‘Indian Birds’, Priya will find out that it will be a duck. Its beak will be broad like a shovel. It will have bright blue feathers. At the moment it will look exhausted.
- India has rich and prosperous society. We are great and powerful in the world. We have a longdemocratic history. We are the best.
- We open the door and step on the foot board.We are deeply disappointed. We feel we have to do something and so we run up to the stationvmaster and ask. “Do you see the girl who sells baskets?”
- Yoga will offer a time trusted technique for whole development. It will be one of the most powerful sciences. It will be considered to beb the most ancient science. It will have the capacity to bring about fundamental transformation in the individual.
- Kavita requested you to look at the picture. What did you notice? Wasn’t it funny? There was a monkey who had a newspaper in his hand and was reading it.
- Priya had studied in her mother tongue and later had joined Oxford University. She had been like any other child but her IQ had powered her to the 1st rank in every year. She had spent years at Cambridge College. She had been good in
- While I am distributing papers, Manthan enters. All the students look at him but nobody responds. So Manthan is surprised.
- Having done my work. I shall go out. I shall see that there will be a huge crowd. Surrounding two men. There will be a quarrel between them. All will enjoy the scene but nobody interrupts.
- I really felt relieved and happy with just a thought that I would pursue a profession which had incorporated my hobbies and my values. I would never be bored but would enjoy working. Hadn’t you done a great job? Mr Raval?
- Jay does everything sincerely. Does he do his duty seriously? Yes, he does because he wants to regain his fame which he has lost in the past. It seems surprising to everyone.
- The Annual Day is celebrated on 15th May. Mr. Rohit is present there. We present various dances. Our cultural committee holds the programme. Roshny handles the whole
- There were dark clouds in the sky. It might rain tonight. It would be troublesome for people.BThere could be a shortage of many things so people were requested to be alert.
- How much Land did a man need? Had you everbthought? Man was not satisfied with what he had. He struggled a lot and got something. Hebhad to try hard to survive.
- “We hadn’t got a deal.” Walt had admitted. The distributer had copyrighted Oswald and he was talking over the series himself. Strangely, walt had not seemed downhearted.
34.What did you do with all your money? A friend once asked him. Pointing at the studio. Walt had said, “I fertilized that field with it. I had ploughed money back into the company almost
as fast as it had come in.”
- Sergeant will continue. “It will bring a disaster. It will have caused enough trouble already. He will throw the paw upon the fire. But Mr. White will be curious and will want to test the powers of the monkey’s paw.
- Morris will say, “An old fakir will put a spell on it. He will be a very holy man and he will want to show that fate will rule people’s lives, and that to interfere with fate, only will cause
- Suddenly, there are sounds of cracks and thunder. The house starts collapsing. The roof, walls and staircase start falling down. They rush towards the ground and then run towards main gate of the villa.
- Riya is reading a novel. Vaidehi enters. She asks her. “Why do you not attend school?” Riya replies her that she does not remain absent but Vaidehi often leaves English lector.
- There lives a very wise man. Who is famous for his wisdom? He plays practical jokes and helps people. People does not disobey him and he also respects other people.
- India had won the gold medal in shooting. There had been a great celebration. There had been many people at the airport to welcome the champion. They had cheered loudly. They
also clapped for the winner.
- All around you could see, there were flowers and flowers. Green meadows and white clouds created a panoramic view. What place was that? Could you guess?
- Sanjana requested you to look at the picture. What did you notice? Wasn’t it funny? There was a monkey who had a newspaper in his hand and was reading it.
- Maths is taught by Shilpa in the secondary section of Shanti Niketan School. The studentsbare inspired by her to get good marks in Maths.The students are inspired to get good marks in Maths by her. Her teaching method is appreciate
by the staff.
44.Sumitra opened a savings account in Canara Bank. She deposited Rupees 10.000 every month She never withdrew money from her savings account.