English Grammar Class 12 Editing

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English Grammar class 12 Editing

   લેખન કાર્યમાં ભૂલોને સુધારવાની જરૂર હોય છે, વ્યવહારમાં તેમજ રોજબરોજ ઉપયોગી લેખન કાર્યમાં જાણે અજાણે ભૂલ થઇ જાય છે. આ પ્રત્યેક વખત લખ્યા પછી એક બે વખત તેને તપાસવું જ પડે છે. અને તે લેખનમાં રહેલી ભૂલોને દૂર કર્યા

પછી જ  error free writing બની શકે. આ ઉદ્દેશ્યને નજર સમક્ષ રાખીને editing  નો વિભાગ અહીં આપવામાં આવ્યો છે.

  અહીં આપેલા ફકરામાં કેટલીક જગ્યાએ ભૂલો હશે. આપેલ writing ને વાંચીને તેમાં રહેલી ભૂલોને દુર કરવાની રહેશે. ભૂલો અલગ અલગ પ્રકારની હોઇ શકે. જે નીચે દર્શાવ્યું  છે. દરેક પ્રકારની ભૂલો દર્શાવવું શક્ય નથી, પરંતુ મહત્વની ભૂલો કેવી હોઈ શકે તે અહી બતાવી છે.

  1. એકવચન – બહુવચન (singular – plural) ની ભૂલો :
  • Boy કે Boys, child કે children, man કે men, foot કે feet, tooth કે teeth અને એના જેવા કેટલાય શબ્દો, ફકરામાં આવતા context ને  આધારે નક્કી કરવા.
  •   કસરત એ. વ. કે  બ. વ.ને આધારે am/is/are કે was/were, do…does , have-has નક્કી કરવા. દા. ત., People are, He does not, Ami goes, We go, Children were, Feet have, etc,

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

I called five boy. They is child. They has toys. It are lovely.

Ans.boys, are, children, have, they

  1. Tense ની ભૂલો :
  • Change the tense ના chapter માં દર્શાવ્યા મુજબ કાળનો ખ્યાલ રાખી તેમાં રહેલી ભૂલો દૂર કરવી.
  • ખાસ કરીને do, does, did તેમજ may, would જેવા કોઈપણ modal સાથે હંમેશા ક્રિયાપદનું મુળ રુપ મુકાય

Example :-

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

   We does not likes pollution, It cause many problems. We should opposed it. Because it create many problems.

Ans: do, like, causes, oppose, creates

  1.   Article  ની ભૂલો
  • સામાન્ય રીતે સ્વરથી ઉચ્ચારતા શબ્દ આગળ ‘an’ અને વ્યંજનથી ઉચ્ચારાતા શબ્દ આગળ *a* આર્ટીકલ આવે. (જાતિ વાચક, એકવચન અને ગણી શકાય તેવા શબ્દો હોવા જોઈએ)
  • નિશ્ચિત સ્થાન, બાબત સાથે ‘the’ આર્ટિકલ આવે.
  • દુનિયામાં જે એક જ અને અજોડ છે તેની આગળ ‘the’ આર્ટીકલ આવે.

Example :

Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

A  Ramayan is the epic. It is one of a best holy books. Lord rama crossed a Hindu oce went to Lanka. What an great man he is !

Ans: The, an, the, the, a

  1. Preposition ની ભૂલો:

 On     – અડીને ઉપર                    over – વધુ ઊંચાઇએ ઉપર       

under – નીચે                             below – લખાણમાં નીચે

behind  – પાછળ                     beside – બાજુમાં

in     – અંદર                             into – બહારથી અંદર પ્રવેશવું /જવું

out   – બહાર                             out of- અંદરથી બહાર

near   – નજીક                           along – બાજુમાં

towards- ની તરફ                       between – વચ્ચે

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

 The book is over the table. The table is____(near, on) the chair. A box is___(towards, under the table. Our teacher enters in the room now. He goes_______( below, towards) the table.

Ans: on, near, under, into, towards

  1. Phrase preposition  ની ભૂલો:-

according to -ના મત મુજબ.     Instead of- ને બદલે

on account of, because      with regard to- ને અનુલક્ષીને

of owing to-ના કારણે

in spite of despite – તેમ       in the middle of- ની વચ્ચે

છતાં પણ

with a view to, in order.    On behalf of- ના વતીથી

 to-ના  હેતુથી

Example :

Rewrite the following text correcting the underline words.

_____(According to, On behalf of) Gandhiji truth is God. He was great faith on to truth because his life style. in spite of living an English life he prefers to be simple.

Ans:According to, because of, instead of.

  1. Pronoun (સર્વનામ) ની ભૂલો:

કર્તા.                  સબંધક.     કર્મ. Refelective

I                        my/ mine. me.              mysalf    

We.                  Our/ ours.     us. Ourselves

You.                Your/yours.     You. Yourself

You.                Your/yours       you. Yourselves

  1.                 his/his.         him. himself

She.               her/hers.         her. herself

they.              their/theirs.         then. themselves

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the bold words.

  I am Sohan. This is me school. These books are our. We clean our school ourself. She is Sanjana. This is his car. She cleans her car herselves. They are ours guest. They do there work themselves.

Ans :- my, ours, ourselves her, herself, our, their.

  1. Conjunction (સંયોજક) ની ભૂલો
  • and /as well as (અને) વડે બે સમાન બાબતને જોડાય.

He is rich and famous.

  • but / yet / still (પરંત)  વડે બે વિરોધી બાબત જોડાય.

He is clever but he failed

  • So therefore (તેથી) વડે બે પરિણામ દર્શાવતા વાક્ય જોડાય છે.

He walked fast so he reached early

  • because / since / as (કારણ કે) વડે કારણ દર્શાવતા વાક્ય જોડાય છે.

He is late because he missed the bus.

  • who ( કે જે) પછી હમેંશા ક્રિયાપદ આવે.

I met him who is a doctor.

  • whom (કે જેને) પછી હંમેશા કર્તા (નામ ,સર્વનામ )આવે.

I met him whom you know.

  • Whose (કે, જેનું , જેના, જેની, જેનો) સંબંધ દર્શાવે છે.

I met him whose daughter is lost.

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

 Once I met a musician who you know very well. His sister whose was in U.S.A. also came.there. She was clever and not like her brother so she did not have much knowledge about Indian Culture.

Ans:  whom, who, but, because.

  1. Indefinite pronoun (અનિશ્ચિત વાચક સર્વનામ ની ભૂલો):-

some -થોડુક ,થોડાક

much – વધારે (જથ્થો દર્શાવે)

many – વધારે (ગણી શકાય તેવા હોય તો)

the rest –  બાકીના

Example:

1.some  friends are here, the rest are there.

  1. I bought much ghee and many bananas.
  •   few- થોડાક (નહિવતના  અર્થમાં વપરાય છે, સામાન્ય રીતે તેનો નેગેટીવ અર્થ હોય છે. ગણી શકાય તેવા નામ આગળ વપરાય છે.)

Example : He is new here, he was few friends.

  • a few – થોડાક (ગણી શકાય તેવા નામ આગળ વપરાય.positive અર્થ દર્શાવે છે.)

Example: I have a few friends in Ahmedabad.

  • Little, a little (થોડુંક) બંને જથ્થા વાચક નામ આગળ આવે પરંતુ little નેગેટિવ અર્થ દર્શાવે છે. જ્યારે a little એ અર્થ દર્શાવે છે.

Example : There is little milk so don’t make tea.

Please use a little milk and make tea.

  • anybody ( કોઈપણ ), anything (કંઈ પણ), any time (ગમે ત્યારે), any where (ગમે ત્યાં).

Example: You can take anything from the market.

Please send anybody/ anyone to my office.

You can come at any time.

  • somebody (કોઈએક), something (કંઈક), some time (ક્યારેય), somewhere (ક્યાંક).

Example : Please send ‍ somebody who is clever.

Ami, please do something to help me.

Oh ! I will come sometime!

Boby, look under the table. It may be somewhere there.

  • no body (કોઈ નહીં), nothing (કંઈ નહીં), no where (ક્યાંય નહીં).

Example : Don’t wait, no body will come.

I tried to find but it is nowhere here.

You will lose, there is nothing in the matter.

  •   each other – (એક બીજાને) જો બે જ વ્યક્તિ એક બીજાને મદદ કરે તો.

one another – (એક બીજાને) જો બે કરતાં વધારે વ્યક્તિ એક બીજાને મદદ કરે તો.

between – જયારે બે વ્યક્તિ વચ્ચે વસ્તુ વહેંચવાની હોય તો

among – જ્યારે બે કરતાં વધુ વ્યક્તિ વચ્ચે કોઈ વસ્તુ વહેંચવાની હોય તો.

Example : Ram and Shyam help each other.

               All my friends help, one another.

               I distributed flowers between Ram and Shyam.

              I distributed flower among students.

  • all (બધા), each (દરેક), every (પ્રત્યેક), none (કોઈ નહીં), both (બંને).
  • all અને both બહુવચનમાં આવે જ્યારે each, every, none  હંમેશા એક વચનમાં આવે.

Example : He called all and gives each of them a pen.

None of the boys is late.All come on time.

Both the girls are lazy. None of them stood to start the fan

Every boy is given a school bag.

  • Since અે સમયનું બિંદુ  point of timeદર્શાવે છે જ્યારે એ સમયનો ગાળો (period of time)દર્શાવે છે. ચોક્કસ દિવસ, મહિનો, વાર, સમય, તારીખ સાથે since આવે.

પાંચ મિનિટ , એક વર્ષ , બે દિવસ, જેવા સમયનો ગાળો દર્શાવવા for આવે.

Example : I have been here Since Monday.

                 I have been here for a last week.

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

  As Raju is new here he has few friends, His every friends welcome him. Once they went to  Big Bazaar. They brought much clothes and they distributed between them Raju and Anju are fast friends. They always help one another.

Ans:   a few, all, many, among each other.

  1. કેટલાક સંયોજકો/  શબ્દ સમૂહ હમેંશા pair માં જ વપરાતા હોય છે.
  1. Such ………as

He is such a man as you like.

2 The same………as

I saw the same pen as you bought.

  1. So…that

He walks so fast that I can’t follow.

4.Neither …..nor

He likes neither  Ami nor Maya.

  1. Either …….or

Either I or he will come.

  1. Both….. .and

I will go both to Abu and to Ambaji.

  1. Hardly ….when

Hardly had I come when you called me

8.No sooner…Than

No sonner did I come than you called me.

9.નકાર વિધાન સાથે ……… but

I call none but Ajay.

Example :

Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words:

   Hardly had l seen him them I  informed you. He was wearing the same the same dress that you have. He walked so fast as nobody could follow her. You both are same lazy that either of you come here to welcome us.

Ans. when, as, that, so, neither.

  1. Spelling ની ભૂલો :-

કેટલાક Spelling સરખા જેવા હોય છે તેની પણ ભૂલો હોવી જોઈએ.

quiet – quite             from-form           deer dear

piece – peace.       accept – except, expect        center – centre

whole – hole.            leave live             palace – place

Example :

  • Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

  It is quite impossible that you can’t feel you from. Deer friends you have to leave long so live in peace and except my advice.

Ans. quite, fill, form, dear, live, peace, accept.

  1. Question tag ની ભૂલો :- 

 વક્તા પોતાની રજૂઆત ને ધારદાર બનાવવા  Question નો ઉપયોગ કરે છે.

Example:-

  1. He is regular….……… isn’t he?
  1. I am busy……………. aren’t I?
  1. We can do it………. can’t we?
  1. We can not forgive……….can we?
  1. Asha is busy…………… isn’t she?
  1. Tara will come……. won’t she ?
  1. This was not cheap………..was it?
  1. These are beautiful flowers……….aren’t they?
  1. I play tennis…..,……..don’t I ?
  1. She plays a game…………doesn’t she?
  1. Arti played a game…………..didn’t she ?

ઉપર દર્શાવ્યા મુજબ જો statement હકાર હોય તો  question tag નકાર 

અને statement નકાર હોય તો question tag હકાર હોય છે.

Question tag હંમેશા  short forms દ્વારા લખાય છે.

Example :

  •   Rewrite the following text correcting the underlined words.

  I think that you should be regular, should you? I ask you to help me, doesn’t you?

Ans:-   Shouldn’t you ?, don’t I ?

નોંધ: ઉપર દર્શાવ્યા ઉપરાંત  capital letter, cardinal/ordinal numbers

તેમજ ગ્રામરમાં આવતા reported speech, word building અને બીજા અન્ય ક્ષેત્રની પણ ભૂલો હોઈ શકે. શાંતિથી વાંચીને દરેક ભૂલ સુધારવી.

  1. I visited him on   the hospital the night after he died. Inspite of desperately ill, he was as fool of plans for the future but he had been all his life.
  1. We went for a walk in the evening. After a while, Shiv was too tired that walk further. He had the two hire a cab. Fortunately, none had any money but we had forgotten even to bring any ATM card with us.
  1. It gives a sign of mentality stress present in you. The best you deal with stress, less you mental ability will be affected. The following exercises will help you build better stress resilience and rebalance yourself but your mental capacity has already started to suffer due of stress.
  1. Imagine projecting the situation onto a screen with your mind if it were a film you were watched. Include only when has really happened not what you are afraid might happen.
  1. I was late coming bake home, and I did feel quite unburdened and a lot less worried by what Dr.Kamble had said. I thought the way Nana had made his adjustments to Nani, we to make adjustments with him.
  1. The policemen was called to SBI yesterday. The bank was robbed at 2.30 p.m. A big amount was looted. No customer were hurt but one robber was shot by police. Later, several customer were interviewed about the robbery.
  1. Clues had been investigate. Some fingerprints were also founded at the bank. Some images of the robbers were captured above CCTV cameras. The officers for the police department are investigating the case well.

33.That check did not get cleared. It was drow to be in flavour of her friend. Arti had sufficient balance in her bank account.

  1. Mr White searched frantically for the monkey’s paw, fearful of which was likely to happen. As he hear the chain rattle back still the bottom bolt drawing slowly and softly from the socket, he found the paw and made his the third but last wish.

35.Himalay said that he was very sorry but he could not attend the sells conference on Monday. He was leaving from Delhi that evening and would not be back till Wednesday. He wondered unless Dipak could go to the sales conference instead.

                    BOARD EXAM QUESTION ★

MARCH-2010

1.It was one of the cold autumn nights. The old banker was remembering how, fifteen years after, he had given a party in a similar autumn evening. Very few garden parties in that village have been so gorgeous than that one. Many intellectuals were presence and their had been interesting

conversations. Between other things, they had a lively discussion at major punishment. Most of the guest disap- proved of the death penalty.

JULY-2010

2.Ashok and his mighty victory  army returned home again when Ashok was bake in his place, he sent from his chief and his warlords, his counselors and his man of state and standing upon before them, he said. “I have sin the horrors of victory. I shall not draw the sword again expect to defence my country 

in favour of  invasion.”

JULY-2011

3.Almost a week had passed for I had got Susie’s letter. It was Friday and I had a Geography test this afternoon. I sat revise my lessons below the gulmohar tree. The chrysanthemums and dahlias were in ful bloom. Then suddenly, the little yellow butterfly hovered around me and finally perched lightly in my leg stretched out in front of me. I became absolutely still. It moved it’s wings daintily for a movement  and than flew off.

MARCH-2012

4.We visited the science sity(city, sity) who (who, which) is situated on (on, in) Ahmedabad next ( next last) Sunday. We riched (reached, Riched) there at 2:30 a.m. (a.m., p.m.) in the afternoon. We enjoyed the uthrills (thrills, thrills) ride. We also show (Saw, show) a (a, an) animation film. We also enjoyed

the music of the mucical (musical, musical) fountain.

MARCH 2013

  1. Once there was an Arab which owned a very fine horse. The Arab treated him with care and kindly,One day the Arab attacked by some robbers. He fall of the horse. He was so serious wounded if he was not able to get up. His horse saw this. He cought his master’s belt amonge his teeth and brought his home. People praised all, the horse and his master.

MARCH 2014

6.Many years before in Kerala once there lived a king whom name was king mahabali. He loves his people very much people loved him as many as they loved the God. The worshipping him like God. Though the Gods didn’t like this, still  they drove him out. The king went to the gods and asked them to allow him meeting his people once.

JULY-2014

7.A Greek slave named Aesop bought together a collection of stories. Today we know it as Aesop’s Fables. One of the fable deals with a dispute among the sun and the wind. The dispute was over which of the two were the stronger. One day opportunity arise to settle the dispute. A person dressed in a cot  was walking down a deserted country rode.The sun sad

to the wind,” whoever makes the person remove it faster will

be the winner.”

MARCH-2015

  1. I want too become a shoulder. I have joint N.C.C. from class VIII only. so. I have a good physics and I want to serve my country on future. I no that his life is fool of risk and challenges. I like to take up challenges, but try to overcome them.

JULY-2015

9.The birth centenary of sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was celebrating  here yesterday for great enthusiastie. as a part of celebration, a blood donation camp was jointly organized by the youth club and the red cross society over the local hospital. In three hour nearly 120 bottles of blood are gathered. The donors were given out the certificates on the hands of the chief guest.

MARCH 2016

  1. From than on I mate Mr. Franks every day Wednesday. Wednesday was my day of from the school hostel. I would spend the morning on Susie’s and after lunch, I’d walk down in the home. He would be relaxing on his tiny dolls home garden.

MARCH-2017

  1. The possibility of the( 36) gust of wind break(37) the image was to(38) remote, Gobinda think (39).But the image had been place(40) very close to the open window, only a metre away. He had shifted the image oneself (41), deliberate(42) in order to(43) much(44) light would be available on(45) his

work.

MARCH-2018

  1. As the methods of autofab advanse, the form of raw materials will be unimportant. Sophisticated autofab machines would be capable in rearranging molecular structures to generate many objects from them.

MARCH-2019

  1. Isamu,Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura were awarded the Nobel prize for inventing a new energy – efficient and environment friendly light source. White LED lamps produce bright white light.We should use LED light to save

electricity.

                  ANSWERS – EXERCISES

           :  ANSWERS – EXERCISE -1:

  1. as if.                 11.prey     21.an                                                    
  1. boys.                 12.the.   22.whi
  1. palace.              13.as.     23.since
  1. won’t I?             14.such..as. 24.why
  1. so.                    15. Of.   25.anyone
  1. such…as.          16.according to. 26.same.as
  1. however.          17.when.     27.each
  1. taller.                18.best. 28.according     
  1. in order to        19.is.       29.where
  1. not only..        20.little.     30.no sooner..than

 but also

 

31.so that.                      41. So that 

32.as.                             42.instead of

33.meal.                        43.aren’t I?

34.children.                   44.advise

35.the rest.                    45.the

36.with a view to.          46.than

37.so..that.                    47.shall we

 

38.such..as.                  48. Whose

39.as if.                        49.in spite of

40.Neither..nor.            50. Such.. as

      

    :  ANSWERS – EXERCISE – 2

1 who, ants, where, for

  1. at, saw, an, was driven

3.soldiers, helped, the, injustice

  1. strong enough, brought up, feel, unless
  1. which, in, last, reached, at
  1. from, for, was given, her

7 ago, once, whose, king Mahabali

  1. sun, if, using, Its
  1. upon, sleeping, elder, to save
  1. weeping, because, would, her
  1. too, for, an, exciting
  1. the, who, Venice, prosperous
  1. are, as, him, to solve
  1. best, avoiding, how, much
  1. than, I, rich enough, an
  1. model, doesn’t, planes, sale
  1. On, listening, complaints, show
  1. crossing, because, weak were
  1. the, Everybody, to help, do
  1. However, anything, take, on
  1. become, suggests join, then
  1. leave, bye, seat, to touch
  1. an, where, constantly, found
  1. best to, when, pool
  1. with a view to, who, saw, same
  1. at, before, full
  1. to, to, Unfortunately, and
  1. mental, better, the less
  1. in, as if, watching, what
  1. back, but, with, too
  1. policeman, robbed, was, customers
  1. investigated, found, over, from
  1. cheque, get, drawn, insufficient
  1. what, heard, and, and
  1. because, sales, for, if
  • ANSWERS : BOARD QUESTION•

1.It was one of the hot  autumn nights. The old banker was remembering how, fifteen years before, he had given a  party on a similar autumn evening. Very few garden parties in that village had beenbso gorgeous as that one. Many intellectuals were present and there had been interesting conversations.

Among other things, they had a lively discussion on major punishment. Most of the guests disapproved of the death penalty.

2.Ashok and his mighty victorious army returned home again when Ashok was back in his palace, he sent for his chief and his warlords, his counselor and his men of state and standing up before them, he said, ” I have seen the horrors of victory. I shall not draw the sword again except to defendvmy country against invasion.”

3.Almost a week had passed since I had got Susie’s letter. It was Friday and I had a Geography test that  afternoon. I sat revising my lessons under the gulmohar tree. The chrysanthemums and dahlias were in full bloom. Then suddenly, a little yellow butterfly hovered around me and finally perched lightly on my leg stretched out in front of me. I became absolutely still. It moved it’s wings daintiny for a moment  and then flew off.

4.We visited the science City which is situated in Ahmedabad last Sunday. We reached there at 2:30 p.m. in the afternoon. We enjoyed the thrill  ride. We also saw an animation film. We also enjoyed the music of the musical fountains.

5.Once there was an Arab who owned a very fine horse. The Arab treated him with care and kindness,One day the Arab was attacked by some robbers. He fell from of the horse. He was so seriously wounded that he was not able to get up. His horse saw this. He caught his master’s belt with his teeth and brought him home. People praised both, the horse and his master.

6.Many years ago in Kerala once there lived a king whose name was King Mahsbsli He loved his people very much. people loved him as much as they loved the God. The worshipped him like God. But the Gods didn’t like this, so they drove him out. The king went to the gods and requested

them to allow him to meet his people once.

  1. A Greek slave named Aesop brought together a collection of stories. Today we know them as Aesop’s Fables. One of the fables deals with a dispute between the sun and the wind. The dispute was over which of the two was the stronger. One day an opportunity arose to settle the dispute. A person

dressed in a coat was walking down a deserted country road. The sun said to the wind, “whoever makes the person remove it faster will be the winner.”

8.I  Want to  become a soldier. I have joined N.C.C. from class VIII only. So that I have a good physique and I want to serve my country in future. I know that his life is full of risk and challenges. I like to take up challenges, and try to overcome them.

9.The birth centenary of sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was celebrated  here yesterday with  great enthusiasm. as a part of celebration, a blood donation camp was jointly organized by the youth club and red cross society at the local hospital. In three hours nearly 120 units of blood were gathered.  The

donors were given away the certificates by the hands of the chief guest.

  1. From then on I met Mr. Franks every Wednesday. Wednesday was my day off from the school hostel. I would spend the morning at Susie’s and after lunch, I’d walk down to the Home. He would be relaxing in his tiny doll’s home garden.
  1. The possibility of a gust of wind breaking the image was too remote, Gobinda though. But the image had been placed very close to the open window, only a metre away. He had shifted the image himself,deliberately in order that more light would be available for his work.
  1. As the methods of autofab advance, the form of raw materials will be unimportant. Sophisticated autofab machines wiil be capable of rearranging molecular structures to generate any object from them.
  1.   • Who was/were awarded the Nobel prize for inventing a new energy-efficient and environment friendly light source?
  • What do white LED lamps produce?
  • Why should we use LED light?

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